An extra-axial brain injury refers to an injury or condition that lies outside the central brain tissue and is located in the layers surrounding the brain. These layers are the meninges, which are three thin membranes that protect and support the brain inside the skull. The three layers of the meninges are:
1. dura mater: This is the outermost and toughest layer. It adheres to the inner surface of the skull and provides a protective barrier between the brain and the skull.
2. Arachnoid: This is a thin layer that lies just below the dura. It has a cobweb-like appearance and contains blood vessels that nourish the brain.
3. Pia mater: This is the innermost layer and is in direct contact with the surface of the brain. It is rich in blood vessels and is responsible for supplying nutrients and oxygen to the brain tissue.
Extra-axial lesions can be caused by different factors, such as trauma, infections, tumors, hemorrhages and other medical problems. Examples of extra-axial injuries include subdural hematomas (accumulation of blood between the dura and arachnoid), epidural hematomas (accumulation of blood between the dura and skull), meningeal tumors (tumors that develop in the meninges) and arachnoid cysts (fluid-filled sacs within the arachnoid).
Diagnosis and treatment of extra-axial lesions are also performed by medical professionals, usually neurologists, neurosurgeons or radiologists. Diagnostic techniques may include brain imaging such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and treatment will depend on the type and severity of the lesion and may include surgery, fluid drainage, drug therapy and other medical approaches depending on the patient’s specific situation.
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